Class 12 Mathematics Dynamics Notes has been updated according to the latest syllabus of 2080. It means the notes of dynamics chapter provided in this article contains all the new exercise that has recently been updated. Now you don’t need to go anywhere searching for the notes of this chapter because we are here to serve you.

## Chapter – 19

__Dynamics__

In Class 12 mathematics, the chapter on dynamics is focused on understanding the motion of objects and the forces that influence this motion. It involves using calculus, particularly differentiation and integration, to analyze how particles move under various forces.

This chapter also delves into relative motion, examining how the motion of objects is perceived in different frames of reference, particularly in terms of velocity and acceleration.

## Class 12 Mathematics Dynamics Notes PDF

This PDF will provide the solutions of every question from the 3rd exercise of class 12 dynamics chapter. If you want the notes of other exercises then you can choose from the button given above.

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### Weight and Mass

We all know that material objects, large or small, around us are constantly pulled or attracted by earth. This pull is called the gravitational attraction or force due to graity. The space round the earth where the mass of an object experiences a gravitational pull or force due to gravity, is called the gravitational field of the earth. The weight of an object is defined as the force acting on it due to the gravitational pull or gravity.

As usual, the force of gravity acting on a body of mass produces an acceleration. In the absence of resistance due to air, all material objects, regardless of their masses, fall with the same acceleration at the same point near the surface of the earth. In such a situation the objects are said to be falling freely under the action of gravity. The motion itself is given the name ‘free fall’.

The acceleration of a body falling freely under the action of gravity is called the ‘acceleration due to gravity and is denoted by the italic g to distinguish itself from the Roman letter g used to denote mass in grams. At or near the surface, its value is taken to be 9.8ms² or 980cms² approximately. It is, however, to be noted that the value of ‘g’ varies from place to place and depends on latitude and elevation. The value of g is slightly greater at the poles than at the equator (explain why?)

### Newton’s third law of motion

Isolated material object is not known in this universe. Of various objects around us, some are near one another while other quite far away. In any case, we are free to think of two objects regardless of the distance separating them. We know that each of the objects has some mass But, mass being a measure of the inertia of the object, is inseparable with the force associated with it.

Once we have two objects, the forces associated with the masses of the objects mutually interact. The two interacting forces are called ‘action’ and ‘reaction’. We have no hard and fast rule to name one as the action and the other the ‘reaction’ to it. If we call one of them action, the other is called its reaction. One should simply remember that action and reaction act on different objects.

Newton, after observing many phenomena involving action and reaction, summed up his experience in the following way”To every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction”. This statement is known as Newton’s third law of motion.

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